al-Salāmu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullāh,
There are endless gems to be extracted from the depth, breadth and precision of Arabic vocabulary, and among the many books which put some such gems on display is the classic Fiqh al-Lughah wa Sirr al-'Arabiyyah by Abu Mansur al-Tha'aalibi. His book is divided into two sections, the first of which is almost exclusively a lexicographical study that arranges words according to a wider quality that they share, rather than alphabetically.
The first such entry deals with words that are found in the Qur'an, and offers a broader meaning for them.
Below are some examples given by al-Tha'aalibi. I have italicised the word that is used in the Qur'an, and added a reference to some of the instances in which it is used in the Qur'an, followed by the most common translation of the word in bold. This is to compare the actual meaning with the meaning conveyed through translation. It should be noted that while these are the broader linguistic meanings, they may not apply in every instance the word is used in the Qur'an as the meaning may be restricted according to its context. The benefit of this knowledge is rather to see how the words used in the Qur'an were developed and their wider meanings.
Everything that is above you and offers you shade is a samaa'. (sky; 3:5, 10:31)
- Every square-shaped building is a ka'bah (5:95, 5:97)
Everything that crawls ('dabba') on the face of the Earth is a daabbah (animal, beast; 2:164, 6:38)
Every part of the body that one is shy to uncover is a 'awrah (33:13)
- Every plant that has a trunk is known as a shajarah (tree, 2:35, 7:22)
Every garden surrounded by a wall is a hadeeqah (pl. is hadaa'iq) (garden, 27:60, 78:32, 80:30)
- Every difficult calamity that befalls man is a qaari'ah (101:1-2, 69:4)