al-Salāmu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullāh,
As the new student begins to learn Arabic vocabulary, one of the things that immediately strikes them is that a single word will often have many different shades of meaning. This phenomenon is known as al-Ishtiraak (lit. 'sharing', 'association') and such words are referred to as being a mushtarak lafdhee المشترك اللفظي.
Knowledge of this branch of Arabic is important because it often deeply enriches their understanding of the wonders and miracle of the Qur'an, as well as deepening their appreciation for the language of the Qur'an itself. Thus, it is a topic that many scholars dealt with, either in independant books devoted entirely to the subject or as chapters within other books.
One such word is the word al-'ayn العين. Lexicologists differed as to how many meanings this word has precisely; al-Fayroozabaadi mentions in al-Qaamoos that it has 47 meanings, while Muhammad al-Fasee said in his "Annotations on the Qaamoos" that it has over 100 meanings, and 17 of them appear in the Qur'an. Among its meanings are the eye, the spring [of water], the hollow of the knee, the ballista (type of cross-bow), and buds of plants.
One example of this from the Qur'an is the word du'aa' دعاء, among the meanings of which are as follows. The alternate meanings are in bold, and the verse as it is commonly translated is in italics (Saheeh Intl. translation) to show that the variations in meaning are not reflected outright.
1. Worship, as in 10:106:
وَلَا تَدْعُ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ مَا لَا يَنْفَعُكَ وَلَا يَضُرُّك
And do not invoke (تَدْعُ ) besides Allah that which neither b enefits you nor harms you, for if you did, then indeed you would be of the wrongdoers.
2. Seeking the help of others, as in 2:23:
وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَى عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُواْ بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُواْ شُهَدَاءكُم مِّن دُونِ اللّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
And if you are in doubt concerning what We have sent down upon Our Servant, then produce a surah the like thereof and call upon (وَادْعُواْ) your witnesses other than Allah, if you should be truthful.
3. Making a request, as in 40:60:
وَقَالَ رَبُّكُمُ ادْعُونِي أَسْتَجِبْ لَكُم
And your Lord says, "Call upon Me (ادْعُونِي); I will respond to you."
4. A call, as in 17:52:
يَوْمَ يَدْعُوكُمْ فَتَسْتَجِيبُونَ بِحَمْدِهِ
On the Day He will call you (يَدْعُوكُمْ) and you will respond with praise of Him
5. Naming someone something, as in 24:63,
لَا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّسُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُمْ بَعْضًا
Do not make [your] calling (دُعَاءَ) of the Messenger among yourselves as the call of one of you to another.